Category: ladies only


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FEMALE FOETICIDE IN INDIA

Among various women related issues in India, the female foeticide and female infanticide has become one of the social problem. The advent of technology and misuse of pre-natal sex detection and also attitude of the unscrupulous medical practitioners, who are facilitating the female foeticide through induced abortions. There are strict laws and penal actions against violators, but the laws have not worked. Over 10 million female foetuses have been aborted in India in the past two decades.

The sex ratio as per 2001 census the females are 933 per 1000 males. Although a marginal improvement of six points in the overall female to male sex ratio in India  from 927 in 1991 to 933 in 2001  is an encouraging development, the massive decline of 18 points in the juvenile sex ratio (age group of 0 to 6) from 945 to 927 in the country after 1981  is what shows the extensive female foeticide in India.

It is pertinent to note that the figures shows the fall in the juvenile sex ratio is much higher in the economically developed States in India. There is steep fall in sex ratio in States like, Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Maharashtra , along with the Union territories of Delhi and Chandigarh. In Punjab there are only 874 females per 1,000 males. The situation in Haryana, Gujarat and Maharashtra is also similar – the females are 861, 921 and 922 respectively per 1,000 males. Kerala is the only State were females are 1,058 per 1,000 males. The following is the sex ratio chart from 1901 to 2001.

YEAR – SEX RATIO Females per 1,000 males

1901 – 972

1911 – 964

1921 – 955

1931 – 950

1941 – 945

1951 – 946

1961 – 941

1971 – 930

1981 – 934

1991 – 927

2001 – 933

Source: Census of India, 2001.

India cannot afford to wait till the next census in 2011 to determine whether the growing practice of female foeticide and the girl child mortality rate had gone up. In India the reason behind in rise of female foeticide is because of the strong son preference in society, universalisation of the small family norm, practices like tradition of giving dowry (gifts by father of bride in cash or property to the groom), laws that govern property inheritance and the cultural perception about the familial name through the male line. The mortality of girl child is also high because of parental discrimination against their daughters in terms of health care and nutrition.

FEMALE INFANTICIDE:

According to a recent report by the United Nations Children’s Fund up to 50 million girls and women are missing from India’s population as a result of systematic gender discrimination in India. The disastrous impact of the consumerist culture spawned by globalisation that has been widely held to account by social scientists for the spread of infanticide in India.

There are instances like, leaving days old girl-child near the gates of Governmental Health Centres, Juvenile Centres, Temples and Churches leaving baby’s fate to God. Selling girl child for few hundred rupees to childless couples is another atrocity. Several Incentives and Schemes were introduced by the Government of India to reduce Infant Mortality Rate in India and to discourage the practice of female infanticide.

To combat the situation Government of India had enacted Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Act, 1994 to provide for the regulation of the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for the purpose of detecting genetic or metabolic disorders or chromosomal abnormalities or certain congenital malformation or sex linked disorders and for the prevention of the misuse of such techniques for the purpose of pre-natal sex determination leading to female foeticide.

Sec. 6 of the said Act, clearly says about determination of sex prohibited. Further Sec. 22 prohibits advertisements relating to pre-natal determination of sex and punishment for contravention.

Sec. 23 (3) of the said Act, lays down that any person who seeks the aid of a genetic counseling centre, a genetic laboratory or a genetic clinic, or of a medical geneticist, gynecologist or registered medical practitioner, for applying pre-natal diagnostic techniques on any pregnant women (unless there is evidence she was compelled to under go such diagnostic techniques) for purposes other than those specified, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term that may extend to 3 years and with a fine which may extend to Rs.10,000 and any subsequent conviction may involve imprisonment which may extend to 5 years and a fine of up to Rs.50,000.

The Supreme Court of India in its recent Judgment observed and issued directions to central and State Governments, Union Territories, Central Supervisory Board and Appropriate authorities for proper implementation of the Act.

In the words of Supreme Court of India, It is unfortunate that for one reason or the other, the practice of female infanticide still prevails despite the fact that gentle touch of a daughter and her voice has soothing effect on the parents.

One of the reasons may be the marriage problems faced by the parents compelled with the dowry demand by the so-called educated and/or rich persons who are well placed in the society. The traditional system of female infanticide where by female baby was done away with after birth by poisoning or letting her choke on husk continues in a different form by taking advantage of advance medical techniques. Unfortunately, developed medical science is misused to get rid of a girl child before birth. Knowing fully well that it is immoral and unethical as well as it may amount to an offence, foetus of a girl child is aborted by qualified and unqualified doctors or compounders. This has affected overall sex ratio in various States where female infanticide is prevailing without any hindrance.

The Supreme Court of India directed the Central Government to create public awareness against the practice of pre-natal determination of sex and female foeticide through appropriate releases/programmes in the electronic media.

The Supreme Court of India also directed all the State Governments/Union Territory administrations to create public awareness against the practice of pre-natal determination of sex and female foeticide through advertisements in the print and electronic media by hoardings and other appropriate means. The Governments to furnish quarterly returns to the central supervisory board giving a report on the implementation of PNDT Act, 1994. In order to strengthen the monitoring of female foeticide and girl child survival, the Registrar General of India, has made it mandatory for all the Chief Registrars of Births and Deaths to closely monitor the sex ratio at birth every month.

FEMALE FOETICIDE & INDIANS LIVING ABROAD:

Indians in other countries are going for sex selective abortions is evident by the fact that sex ratio at birth among the Indian community in New Jersey is as bad as in Punjab and Haryana.

A report in the British Newspaper, ‘observer’, hand come up with evidence that British Asian women go to India to abort their baby girls. The British Law does not allow parents to choose sex of their babies except to avoid certain gender linked diseases. This forces many to go abroad. Abortion on the ground of sex is not allowed under the Abortion Act of 1967 in the UK. But sex can be disclosed by patients if they ask during ultrasound

so, what is the our role in preventing female foeticide/infanticide.

Be aware of PNDT(regulation and prevention of misuse)Act 1994
Due to excessive female infanticide in the northern and western states of India there were strong agitations and protests to curb the evil of female foeticide.

The state of Maharashtra became the first in country to ban pre-natal sex determination through the enactment of Maharashtra regulation of prenatal diagnostics techniques act. Similar efforts at the national level resulted in the enactment of the Central pre-natal diagnostic techniques (Regulation and prevention of misuse) Act 1994.

The act has two aspects viz., regulatory and preventive. It seeks to regulate the use of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for legal or medical purposes and prevent misuse for illegal purposes.

In our country a girl is worshiped as a Goddess on one hand and denied her existence on the other as if she has no right to live.

Prevent the cruelties on women and treat them as equals.

I dont think having a girl child in family will ever harm anyone.

if you found this article interesting and if you own a blog/website you can copy this article and publish it there and also leaving comments on the possible ways to help prevent female foeticide.

Please leave your comments





Menstrual Cycle Problems

From missed periods to painful periods, menstrual cycle problems are common, but usually not serious. Follow this chart for information regarding changes in your cycle. Every question include a symptom, its possible diagnosis or DD, and some self care that may be applied. However, it is important that you seek an expect medical opinion if you find any of the symptoms present it you.

1. Have your periods become painful? if NO,

GO TO question no5

If yes, try question number 2,

2. Have you been more emotional, fatigued or irritable, or do you have more bloating or weight gain than usual, or do you have trouble concentrating or sleeping just prior to your periods?

if yes,

This may be normal menstrual cramps, or you may have premenstrual syndrome(PMS)

self care involve

Use over-the-counter medicine such as ibuprofen or naproxen for bloating and pain. Avoid caffeine and alcohol. Make changes to the way you eat and exercise. Eat smaller, more frequent meals that are high in complex carbohydrates such as fruits,vegetables and whole grains, and take a daily multivitamin and calcium. See your doctor if symptoms get worse.

if the above question was answered as NO, try next question

3. Do you have a sexually transmitted disease, or do you have a fever or foul-smelling vaginal discharge?

if YES,

You may have a serious infection around your ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus called PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE

in such case,

URGENT

See your doctor right away. Any infection in the abdomen can be serious.

if the above question was answered as NO, try next question

4. Do you have pain at other times such as during sex, ovulation or bowel movements?

if the answer is YES,

You may have ENDOMETRIOSIS, a problem with the lining of the uterus, or OVARIAN CYST

in such case,

See your doctor.

________________________________________

*5. Are your periods heavier or are you bleeding longer than usual?

if the answer is NO,

Go to Question 9.

if YES, go to question number six,

6. Do you use an IUD(Intra uterine device)?

if yes,

The IUD may have caused this change in the pattern of your bleeding.

in that case, See your doctor.

if the above question was answered as NO, try next question

7. Do you have a constant feeling that you need to urinate, or do you have pelvic pressure, constipation or pain in your back or legs?

if you answered it as YES,

Your symptoms may be from FIBROIDS, noncancerous tumors of the uterus.

in that case, See your doctor.

if you answered the above question as NO,

8. Do you have muscle aches, swelling or stiffness in your joints, tightness or swelling in your throat, and/or weakness in your legs?

if you answered it as YES,

You may have a problem with your THYROID GLAND such as HASHIMOTO’S DISEASE.

in that case, See your doctor.

________________________________________

9. Are your periods irregular, infrequent or have they stopped?

if you answered the question as NO, Go to Question 14.

if you answered the above question as YES,

10. Do you have breast tenderness, abdominal fullness or nausea?

if you answered it as YES,

You may have an OVARIAN CYST, or you may be PREGNANT.

in that case,

If you could be pregnant, do an at-home pregnancy test. If it’s positive, see your doctor for confirmation. If you don’t think you’re pregnant and symptoms continue, see your doctor.

If you answered the above question as NO,

11. Are you on birth control pills?

Some women will miss a period while on BIRTH CONTROL PILLS. There is a small chance you could be PREGNANT

in that case,

Wait to see if you have a period at the end of your next pack of pills. See your doctor if you have signs of pregnancy or you don’t have a period after the second month.

if you answered the above question as NO,

12. Are you 35 years old or older?

if you answered it as YES,

Periods that stop after years of regularity may be caused by normal or premature MENOPAUSE. Irregular periods may be due to FIBROIDS, HORMONE PROBLEMS, or other medical conditions.

in that case,

See your doctor.

if you answered the above question as NO,

13. Have you felt sluggish, or have you gained or lost weight without trying?

if you answered it as YES,

You may have a HORMONE PROBLEM, such as a THYROID GLAND problem. Periods may stop or become irregular if your weight falls dramatically, as can occur with ANOREXIA NERVOSA

in that case,

See your doctor.

if you answered the above question NO,

***14. Are you bleeding at times other than your period, or again after having gone through menopause?

if you answered the question as YES,

Your bleeding could be from FIBROIDS, ENDOMETRIOSIS, or from a serious condition such as ENDOMETRIAL CANCER.

in that case,

See your doctor right away. Early detection of endometrial cancer is important for successful treatment.

if you answered the above question as NO,

For more information, please talk to your doctor. If you think the problem is serious, call your doctor right away.

Honestly, this is a part of a compilation i prepared for a work when i was a student. so, there has been lot of irregularities while converting the file from a doc format of msword to html and iam not a cyber guy, so, there are problems with the typing of it.

hope this information served you any good.

Thank you for reading and GOd bless you

infertility

Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception.

the doctors specializing in infertility, consider a couple to be infertile if:

  • the couple has not conceived after 12 months of contraceptive-free intercourse if the female is under the age of 34.
  • the couple has not conceived after 6 months of contraceptive-free intercourse if the female is over the age of 35 (declining egg quality of females over the age of 35 account for the age-based discrepancy as when to seek medical intervention).
  • the female is incapable of carrying a pregnancy to term.

Subfertility

A couple that has tried unsuccessfully to have a child for a year or more is said to be subfertile meaning less fertile than a typical couple. The couple’s fecundability rate is approximately 3-5%. Many of its causes are the same as those of infertility. Such causes could be endometriosis, or polycystic ovarian syndrome.

Couples with primary infertility have never been able to conceive.

secondary infertility is difficulty conceiving after already having conceived (and either carried the pregnancy to term, or had a miscarriage). Technically, secondary infertility is not present if there has been a change of partners.

Common causes of infertility:

  • Ovulation problems
  • tubal blockage
  • male associated infertility
  • age-related factors
  • uterine problems
  • previous tubal ligation
  • previous vasectomy
  • unexplained infertility
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Male Hypospadias


FACTS

For a woman to conceive, certain things have to happen: intercourse must take place around the time when an egg is released from her ovary; the systems that produce eggs and sperm have to be working at optimum levels; and her hormones must be balanced

There are several possible reasons why it may not be happening naturally. In one-third of cases, it can be because of male problems such as low sperm count. Some women are infertile because their ovaries do not mature and release eggs. In this case synthetic FSH by injection or Clomid (Clomiphene citrate) via a pill can be given to stimulate follicles to mature in the ovaries.

Problems affecting women include endometriosis or damage to the fallopian tubes (which may have been caused by infections such as chlamydia).

Other factors that can affect a woman’s chances of conceiving include being over- or underweight for her age – female fertility declines sharply after the age of 35. Sometimes it can be a combination of factors, and sometimes a clear cause is never established.

Factors that can cause male as well as female infertility are:

  • Genetic Factors
    • A Robertsonian translocation in either partner may cause recurrent spontaneous abortions or complete infertility.
  • General factors
    • Diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders, adrenal disease
  • Hypothalamic-pituitary factors
    • Kallmann syndrome
    • Hyperprolactinemia
    • Hypopituitarism
  • Environmental Factors
    • Toxins such as glues, volatile organic solvents or silicones, physical agents, chemical dusts, and pesticides

Infertility in men is most often caused by:

* Problems making sperm — producing too few sperm or none at all

* Problems with the sperm’s ability to reach the egg and fertilize it — abnormal sperm shape or structure prevent it from moving correctly

Sometimes a man is born with the problems that affect his sperm. Other times problems start later in life due to illness or injury. For example, cystic fibrosis often causes infertility in men.

What increases a man’s risk of infertility?

The number and quality of a man’s sperm can be affected by his overall health and lifestyle. Some things that may reduce sperm number and/or quality include:

* Alcohol

* Drugs

* Environmental toxins, including pesticides and lead

* Smoking cigarettes

* Health problems

* Medicines

* Radiation treatment and chemotherapy for cancer

* Age

What causes infertility in women?

Problems with ovulation account for most cases of infertility in women. Without ovulation, there are no eggs to be fertilized. Some signs that a woman is not ovulating normally include irregular or absent menstrual periods.

Less common causes of fertility problems in women include:

* Blocked fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, endometriosis, or surgery for an ectopic pregnancy

* Physical problems with the uterus

* Uterine fibroids

What things increase a woman’s risk of infertility?

Many things can affect a woman’s ability to have a baby. These include:

* Age

* Stress

* Poor diet

* Athletic training

* Being overweight or underweight

* Tobacco smoking

* Alcohol

* Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

* Health problems that cause hormonal changes

How does age affect a woman’s ability to have children?

More and more women are delaying parenthood until their 30s and 40s. Actually, about 20% of women in the United States now have their first child after age 35. So age is an increasingly common cause of fertility problems. About one-third of couples in which the woman is over 35 have fertility problems.

* Aging decreases a woman’s chances of having a baby in the following ways:

* The ability of a woman’s ovaries to release eggs ready for fertilization declines with age.

* The health of a woman’s eggs declines with age.

* As a woman ages she is more likely to have health problems that can interfere with fertility.

* As a women ages, her risk of having a miscarriage increases.

How long should women try to get pregnant before calling their doctors?

Most healthy women under the age of 30 shouldn’t worry about infertility unless they’ve been trying to get pregnant for at least a year. At this point, women should talk to their doctors about a fertility evaluation. Men should also talk to their doctors if this much time has passed.

In some cases, women should talk to their doctors sooner. Women in their 30s who’ve been trying to get pregnant for six months should speak to their doctors as soon as possible. A woman’s chances of having a baby decrease rapidly every year after the age of 30. So getting a complete and timely fertility evaluation is especially important.

Some health issues also increase the risk of fertility problems. So women with the following issues should speak to their doctors as soon as possible:

* Irregular periods or no menstrual periods

* Very painful periods

* Endometriosis

* Pelvic inflammatory disease

* More than one miscarriage

No matter how old you are, it’s always a good idea to talk to a doctor before you start trying to get pregnant. Doctors can help you prepare your body for a healthy baby. They can also answer questions on fertility and give tips on conceiving.

How will doctors find out if a woman and her partner have fertility problems?

Sometimes doctors can find the cause of a couple’s infertility by doing a complete fertility evaluation. This process usually begins with physical exams and health and sexual histories. If there are no obvious problems, like poorly timed intercourse or absence of ovulation, tests will be needed.

Finding the cause of infertility is often a long, complex, and emotional process. It can take months for you and your doctor to complete all the needed exams and tests. So don’t be alarmed if the problem is not found right away.

For a man, doctors usually begin by testing his semen. They look at the number, shape, and movement of the sperm. Sometimes doctors also suggest testing the level of a man’s hormones.

For a woman, the first step in testing is to find out if she is ovulating each month. There are several ways to do this. A woman can track her ovulation at home by:

* Recording changes in her morning body temperature (basal body temperature) for several months

* Recording the texture of her cervical mucus for several months

* Using a home ovulation test kit (available at drug or grocery stores)

Doctors can also check if a woman is ovulating by doing blood tests and an ultrasound of the ovaries. If the woman is ovulating normally, more tests are needed.

Some common tests of fertility in women include:

* Hysterosalpingography: In this test, doctors use X-rays to check for physical problems of the uterus and fallopian tubes. They start by injecting a special dye through the vagina into the uterus. This dye shows up on the X-ray. This allows the doctor to see if the dye moves normally through the uterus into the fallopian tubes. With these X-rays doctors can find blockages that may be causing infertility. Blockages can prevent the egg from moving from the fallopian tube to the uterus. Blockages can also keep the sperm from reaching the egg.

* Laparoscopy: During this surgery doctors use a tool called a laparoscope to see inside the abdomen. The doctor makes a small cut in the lower abdomen and inserts the laparoscope. Using the laparoscope, doctors check the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus for disease and physical problems. Doctors can usually find scarring and endometriosis by laparoscopy.

How do doctors treat infertility?

Infertility can be treated with medicine, surgery, artificial insemination, or assisted reproductive technology. Many times these treatments are combined. About two-thirds of couples who are treated for infertility are able to have a baby. In most cases infertility is treated with drugs or surgery.

Doctors recommend specific treatments for infertility based on:

  • Test results
  • How long the couple has been trying to get pregnant
  • The age of both the man and woman
  • The overall health of the partners
  • Preference of the partners

Doctors often treat infertility in men in the following ways:

  • Sexual problems: If the man is impotent or has problems with premature ejaculation, doctors can help him address these issues. Behavioral therapy and/or medicines can be used in these cases.
  • Too few sperm: If the man produces too few sperm, sometimes surgery can correct this problem. In other cases, doctors can surgically remove sperm from the male reproductive tract. Antibiotics can also be used to clear up infections affecting sperm count.

Various fertility drugs are often used to treat women with ovulation problems. It is important to talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of these medicines. You should understand the risks, benefits, and side effects.

Doctors also use surgery to treat some causes of infertility. Problems with a woman’s ovaries, fallopian tubes, or uterus can sometimes be corrected with surgery.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is another type of treatment for infertility. IUI is known by most people as artificial insemination. In this procedure, the woman is injected with specially prepared sperm. Sometimes the woman is also treated with medicines that stimulate ovulation before IUI.

  • IUI is often used to treat:
  • Mild male factor infertility
  • Women who have problems with their cervical mucus
  • Couples with unexplained infertility

ART( assisted reproductive therapy)

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is a term that describes several different methods used to help infertile couples. ART involves removing eggs from a woman’s body, mixing them with sperm in the laboratory, and putting the embryos back into a woman’s body.

Common methods of ART include:

  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) means fertilization outside of the body. IVF is the most effective ART. It is often used when a woman’s fallopian tubes are blocked or when a man produces too few sperm. Doctors treat the woman with a drug that causes the ovaries to produce multiple eggs. Once mature, the eggs are removed from the woman. They are put in a dish in the lab along with the man’s sperm for fertilization. After three to five days, healthy embryos are implanted in the woman’s uterus.
  • Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT) or Tubal embryo transfer is similar to IVF. Fertilization occurs in the laboratory. Then the very young embryo is transferred to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
  • Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) involves transferring eggs and sperm into the woman’s fallopian tube. So fertilization occurs in the woman’s body. Few practices offer GIFT as an option.
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is often used for couples in which there are serious problems with the sperm. Sometimes it is also used for older couples or for those with failed IVF attempts. In ICSI, a single sperm is injected into a mature egg. Then the embryo is transferred to the uterus or fallopian tube.

ART procedures sometimes involve the use of donor eggs (eggs from another woman), donor sperm, or previously frozen embryos. Donor eggs are sometimes used for women who can not produce eggs. Also, donor eggs or donor sperm are sometimes used when the woman or man has a genetic disease that can be passed on to the baby.

Menstrual Cycle Problems



From missed periods to painful periods, menstrual cycle problems are common, but usually not serious. Follow this chart for information regarding changes in your cycle. Every question include a symptom, its possible diagnosis or DD, and some self care that may be applied. However, it is important that you seek an expect medical opinion if you find any of the symptoms present it you.

SYMPTOMS DIAGNOSIS SELF-CARE

1. Have your periods become painful? if NO,

GO TO question  no5

If yes, try question number 2,

2. Have you been more emotional, fatigued or irritable, or do you have more bloating or weight gain than usual, or do you have trouble concentrating or sleeping just prior to your periods?

if yes,

This may be normal menstrual cramps, or you may have premenstrual syndrome(PMS)

self care involve

Use over-the-counter medicine such as ibuprofen or naproxen for bloating and pain. Avoid caffeine and alcohol. Make changes to the way you eat and exercise. Eat smaller, more frequent meals that are high in complex carbohydrates such as fruits,vegetables and whole grains, and take a daily multivitamin and calcium. See your doctor if symptoms get worse.

if the above question was answered as NO, try next question

3. Do you have a sexually transmitted disease, or do you have a fever or foul-smelling vaginal discharge?

if YES,

You may have a serious infection around your ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus called PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE

in such case,

URGENT

See your doctor right away. Any infection in the abdomen can be serious.

if the above question was answered as NO, try next question

4. Do you have pain at other times such as during sex, ovulation or bowel movements?

if the answer is YES,

You may have ENDOMETRIOSIS, a problem with the lining of the uterus, or OVARIAN CYST

in such case,

See your doctor.

________________________________________

*5. Are your periods heavier or are you bleeding longer than usual?

if the answer is NO,

Go to Question 9.

if YES, go to question number six,

6. Do you use an IUD(Intra uterine device)?

if yes,

The IUD may have caused this change in the pattern of your bleeding.

in that case, See your doctor.

if the above question was answered as NO, try next question

7. Do you have a constant feeling that you need to urinate, or do you have pelvic pressure, constipation or pain in your back or legs?

if you answered it as YES,

Your symptoms may be from FIBROIDS, noncancerous tumors of the uterus.

in that case, See your doctor.

if you answered the above question as NO,

8. Do you have muscle aches, swelling or stiffness in your joints, tightness or swelling in your throat, and/or weakness in your legs?

if you answered it as YES,

You may have a problem with your THYROID GLAND such as HASHIMOTO’S DISEASE.

in that case, See your doctor.

________________________________________

9. Are your periods irregular, infrequent or have they stopped?

if you answered the question as NO, Go to Question 14.

if you answered the above question as YES,

10. Do you have breast tenderness, abdominal fullness or nausea?

if you answered it as YES,

You may have an OVARIAN CYST, or you may be PREGNANT.

in that case,

If you could be pregnant, do an at-home pregnancy test. If it’s positive, see your doctor for confirmation. If you don’t think you’re pregnant and symptoms continue, see your doctor.

If you answered the above question as NO,

11. Are you on birth control pills?

Some women will miss a period while on BIRTH CONTROL PILLS. There is a small chance you could be PREGNANT

in that case,

Wait to see if you have a period at the end of your next pack of pills. See your doctor if you have signs of pregnancy or you don’t have a period after the second month.

if you answered the above question as NO,

12. Are you 35 years old or older?

if you answered it as YES,

Periods that stop after years of regularity may be caused by normal or premature MENOPAUSE. Irregular periods may be due to FIBROIDS, HORMONE PROBLEMS, or other medical conditions.

in that case,

See your doctor.

if you answered the above question as NO,

13. Have you felt sluggish, or have you gained or lost weight without trying?

if you answered it as YES,

You may have a HORMONE PROBLEM, such as a THYROID GLAND problem. Periods may stop or become irregular if your weight falls dramatically, as can occur with ANOREXIA NERVOSA

in that case,

See your doctor.

if you answered the above question NO,

***14. Are you bleeding at times other than your period, or again after having gone through menopause?

if you answered the question as YES,

Your bleeding could be from FIBROIDS, ENDOMETRIOSIS, or from a serious condition such as ENDOMETRIAL CANCER.

in that case,

See your doctor right away. Early detection of endometrial cancer is important for successful treatment.

if you answered the above question as NO,

For more information, please talk to your doctor. If you think the problem is serious, call your doctor right away.




Honestly, this is a part of a compilation i prepared for a work when i was a student. so, there has been lot of irregularities while converting the file from a doc format of msword to html and iam not a cyber guy, so, there are problems with the typing of it.

finally, i also want to credit the work to its actual author which i cant figure out now( COS IT WAS DOWNLOADED A LONG TIME AGO FROM A WEBSITE). so, i cant take credit for formulating this.

hope this information served you any good.

Thank you for reading and GOd bless you

This part of the blog is concerned with the important things with females. so,  most of the articles to be featured in this corner, ladies only, will be about the common things that a female must be aware of in particular.

so, why is breast examination important?

There has been an increased number of cases reportedly concerned with breast cancer and menstrual irregularities, so in a way it is essential that one learn the basic things concerned with self examination of breast.

Breast development is usually a sign that a girl is entering puberty. Most girls’ breasts start to develop before their first periods. During puberty, every girl’s breasts go through regular changes. As you grow and develop, you may notice small lumps and other changes in your breasts, and during your period, you may find your breasts are sensitive and tender. Most of these developments are totally normal. Getting into the habit of examining your breasts when you’re still in your teens can help you get used to your normal breast changes. When you become familiar with how they feel, it will be easier to recognize anything unusual. so, it is adviced that once  take a few minutes every once in a while, to get the self examination done.

BSE, helps in identifying cysts or other benign (noncancerous) breast problems between checkups. It can also help some women detect breast cancer — a disease that’s extremely rare among teens. It’s easy to perform a breast self-examination, and it only takes a few minutes.

The best time to do breast examination

It’s a good idea to examine your breasts once a month, and it makes sense to choose the same time each month because breasts usually change with the menstrual cycle. The best time to do a BSE  is about a week after your period starts. If your menstrual cycle is irregular or you are at menopause or have undergone hysterectomy (removal of uterus) do the examination at the day of a month you can best remember. women who are breast feeding or are pregnant can continue to examine their breast once in a month. it is adviced for lactating mother’s to do breast examination after feeding or after doing a breast pump, so that there be very little milk inside, so that examination is easier and comfortable.

To do a breast self-examination, remove all your clothes above the waist and lie down. The examination is done while lying down so your breast tissue spreads evenly over your chest wall and is as thin as possible, making it much easier to feel all your breast tissue.

Use the pads of the three middle fingers of your left hand to check your right breast.keep the right hand behind the head.  Move your fingers slowly in small coin-sized circles.

Use three different levels of pressure to feel all of your breast tissue. Light pressure is needed to feel the tissue close to the  surface. Medium pressure is used to feel a little deeper, and firm pressure is used to feel your tissue close to your breastbone and ribs. A firm ridge in the lower curve of each breast is normal. Use each pressure level to feel your breast tissue before moving on to the next spot. Check your entire breast using a lengthwise strip pattern. Feel all of the tissue from the collarbone to the bra line and from the armpit to the breastbone. Start in the armpit and work down to the bottom of the bra line. Move one finger-width toward the middle and work up to the collarbone. Repeat until you have covered the entire breast. Repeat this procedure for your left breast.

This can also be done standing in front of a mirror. always make sure to note

1.what your breast look like

2.what your breast feel like

Before you put on a bra, stand or sit in front of a mirror with your arms relaxed at your sides. Look at your breasts carefully. Do you see anything unusual, like a change in the way your nipples look? Any dimples or changes in the skin?

Then look at yourself from different angles and arm positions. Keep your hands at your sides, raise your arms overhead, place your hands firmly on your hips (to tighten your chest wall muscles), and bend forward. Watch for dimples or changes in the skin. Everyone’s breasts look different. Get to know what yours look like.

some advice it easier to examine the breast in shower. this is because the soap and water helps in the handling easy.

When you have covered the entire breast, use your finger and thumb to gently squeeze your nipple, watching for any discharge. Then put your left arm behind your head and check your left breast the same way.

Most lumps and bumps are usual and remember each breasts are unique. If your breasts are tender because your menstrual period is about to begin, a BSE may cause slight discomfort when you press on your breasts to feel for lumps.

Breast cancer is rarely seen in teenager’s. In fact, among teen girls, the most common type of breast lump is usually related to normal breast growth and development. Other common conditions can cause a breast lump, such as a noncancerous growth known as a fibroadenoma and small, fluid-filled cysts that tend to vary in size with a girl’s menstrual cycle and are called fibrocystic breast changes.

Fibrocystic breast changes are common. In fact more than half of all women have them. They’re related to the normal cycling of hormones associated with menstruation. Fibrocystic breast changes are typically worse just before and at the start of a girl’s period. so, if you doubt you have any of the problem associated it is adviced that you consult a doctor and undergo a clical breast examination.

Infections can also cause breast lumps, as can an injury to the breast.

If you have any of these problems, you should talk to your doctor:

  • pain in your breast that seems unrelated to your period
  • a new lump, bump, or other change in your breast
  • a red, hot, or swollen breast
  • fluid or bloody discharge from your nipple
  • a lump in your armpit

A mammogram , biopsy or ultrasound may be required in certain patients.

Reasons why the results may not be helpful include:

  • Changes in your breasts or breast tenderness that occur during your menstrual cycle.
  • Examining your breasts at different times in your menstrual cycle. This may make it difficult to compare results of one examination with those of another.
  • Having fibrocystic lumps. These may make a breast self-examination difficult because lumps occur throughout the breast. The fibrocystic lumps can also become tender before your menstrual cycle.

hope this part of the article was of any help for you.

do let me know your remarks and stay healthy.

THank you for reading and God bless you…